Leon the Milkman

Anything dairy-related

How to use Pearson’s Square

Hi, Milk Scientists

Need to know how much milk to mix with another to get a certain butterfat %?

Use the Pearson Square or the “milk butterfat square”.  Subtract diagonally and convert to the positive if not. Mix the parts as calculated and you will get the center value ( the one you wanted ).

In this example 2/3 of the final volume of the 4% milk must be added to 1/3 of the 1% milk to get 3% milk. So if you wanted 1000 L of 3% milk, then you would need 666 L of 4% milk and add that to 333 L of 1% milk.

This also works well for juices with different concentrations (Brix).

Kind regards,

Leon the Milkman


Dairy Science and Technology, Second Edition (Food Science and Technology)

Remaining milk – calculation

Hi, Dairy Scientists

You start off with 3.8% butterfat and you skim off to 2% – what is the volume of milk remaining?

Let us say you started off with 1000 liters of milk and your resulting cream has a butterfat of 40%

3.8% – 2% = 1.8% difference per part

1.8% x 1000 liters = 1800 parts of fat to be removed

1800 ÷ 40% = 45 liters of cream

1000 liters – 45 liters = 955 liters of milk remaining.

Don’t ask me why or how – this is the way to do it – agreed?


Leon the Milkman

Wired Cow

Hi, Cow People

Here is some South African Cow Wire Art I bought on the side of the road. Yes, we have everything right here in Africa. 🙂

Kind Regards,

Leon the Milkman

Amazing Grazing - Cow Art Print - License Plate by Randy McGovern from Airstrike, Inc.

Goat Milk Composition


Milk composition differ hugely from one individual animal and one species to the next. However I have found goat milk in our region to have lower solids than cow milk.

Usually in the range of 3.5% Fat, 3% Protein and 4.5% Lactose.

I think some of the beneficial differences between cow milk and goat milk can be attributed to different proteins and fatty acids in the goat milk.

Like the medium chain triglycerides in goat milk that do not follow the same metabolic pathways as other fats in the diet, but are absorbed more easily.

Till later,

Leon the Milkman 

Milk, Goat, Powder, Instant, Can, 12 oz.

Gouda – Sweetmilk Cheese?

Hi, Cheese Fans

Gouda cheese is a sweetmilk cheese. What does that mean?

Well, during the cheese making process some of the whey is removed and substituted with water. This removes lactose and thus in effect some of the acid forming capacity of the whey, because the lactose is converted to acid by the bacteria that you add.

Therefore you end up with “sweeter milk” and therefore sweeter cheese.

Sweet isn’t it!

Leon the Milkman


Aged Gouda - 9.5 to 10.5 LB Wheel

Quick Casein Test

Hi, Cheese People

If you have a automated milk composition analyzer it would be possible to get a quick indication of casein by putting the milk through and then setting it with rennet. Take some of the whey and put it through the analyzer as well. Since the rennet binds the casein, by doing a subtraction of the whey protein from the whole milk, you should get the casein value.

Of course some of the more modern analyzers can do the casein automatically, anyway, but this method should help the other guys out there.


Leon the Milkman

Freezing point of goat’s milk


The freezing point of goat milk as determined by the method: Determination of the Freezing Point of Milk – Modified Hortvet Method, shall not be higher than -0.517 degrees Celsius ( that means closer to zero ).

Freezing point is used to determine if water was added to the milk. For cow milk this cut-off value is -0.512 degrees Celsius.

Talk later,

Leon the Milkman


About Me

Welcome to my Blog!
I'm Leon the Milkman,  dairy specialist and  professional cheese experimenter.

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